Usage: alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
Set or print aliases. With no arguments or with the -p option, this
command prints the list of aliases in the form alias NAME=VALUE on
standard output. Otherwise, an alias is defined for each NAME whose
VALUE is given. A trailing space in VALUE causes the next word to be
checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded. Alias
returns true unless a NAME is given for which no alias has been
Print machine architecture. arch is equivalent to uname -m.
Usage: basename name [suffix]
Print NAME with any leading directory components removed. If
specified, also remove a trailing SUFFIX.
Usage: cal [-13smjyV] [[month] year]
Display a simple calendar. If arguments are not specified, the
current month is displayed.
Usage: cat [-benstuvAET] [file...]
Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output.
Usage: cd [-L|-P] [dir]
Change the current directory to DIR. The variable $HOME is the
default DIR. The -P option says to use the physical directory
structure instead of following symbolic links; the -L option forces
symbolic links to be followed.
Usage: cp [-fv]
Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.
Usage: cut (-b|-c|-f) range,... [-ns] [-d char] [-D string] [file...]
Print selected parts of lines from each file to standard output.
-b LIST output only these bytes
-c LIST output only these characters
-f LIST output only these fields, also print any line that
contains no delimiter character, unless the -s option
-d CHAR use CHAR instead of TAB for field delimiter
-s do not print lines not containing delimiters
-D STRING use STRING as the output delimiter, the default is to
use the input delimiter
Use one, and only one of -b, -c or -f. Each LIST is made up of one
range, or many ranges separated by commas. Each range is one of:
N N'th byte, character or field, counted from 1
N- from N'th byte, character or field, to end of line
N-M from N'th to M'th (included) byte, character or field
-M from first to M'th (included) byte, character or field
With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.
Usage: date [-R] [-r reference] [-d date] [+format]
Display the current time in the given FORMAT.
Usage: diff [-u] file1 file2
Compare files line by line.
Usage: dirname name
Print NAME with its trailing /component removed; if NAME contains no
/'s, output `.' (meaning the current directory).
Usage: dmesg [-n level] [file...]
This program helps users to print out their log messages. Instead of
copying the messages by hand, the user need only:
dmesg > log.messages
and mail the log.messages file to whoever can debug their problem. The
-n option specifies the level of filtering and takes an integer (0-6)
or a symbolic name (debug,trace,warning,error,failure).
dnsdomainname will print the domain part of the FQDN (Fully Qualified
Usage: echo [-neE] [arg...]
Output the ARGs. If -n is specified, the trailing newline is
suppressed. If the -e option is given, interpretation of the
following backslash-escaped characters is turned on:
\a alert (bell)
\c suppress trailing newline
\E escape character
\f form feed
\n new line
\r carriage return
\t horizontal tab
\v vertical tab
\num the character whose ASCII code is NUM (octal).
You can explicitly turn off the interpretation of the above
characters with the -E option.
Usage: env [-i] [-u name] [-] [name=value]... [command [arg]...]
Run a program in a modified environment. The -i option sets an empty
environment. The -u option lets you unset a variable.
Usage: eval [arg...]
Read ARGs as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s).
Usage: exec [-cl] [-a name] [-m method] (file|url)
Not yet documented
Usage: exit [n]
Exit the shell with a status of N. If N is omitted, the exit status
is that of the last command executed.
Usage: expr [arg...]
Not yet documented
Return an unsuccessful result.
Usage: fgrep [-i] string [file...]
Search for STRING in each FILE or standard input.
Usage: file [-biLnNprs] [-F string] [file...]
Tests each file in an attempt to classify it.
Usage: find [directory...]
Not yet documented.
See your favorite un*x manual.
Usage: gc [-bhKMp]
This command activates the garbage collector in an attempt to free
memory. It outputs current memory status.
Usage: grep [-i] pattern [file...]
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input. The PATTERN must
follow the Java syntax.
Usage: gunzip [-cfv] [file...]
Uncompress files. Each file with a .gz extension is replaced by one
without the extension and containing the uncompress data, while
keeping the same modification time.
Usage: gzip [-cdfv19] [file...]
Compress files. Each file is replaced by one with the additional
extension .gz, while keeping the same modification time.
Usage: head [-q] [-c N] [-n N] [file...]
Not yet documented.
See your favorite un*x manual.
Usage: help [-s] [pattern]
Display helpful information about builtin commands. If PATTERN is
specified, gives detailed help on all commands matching PATTERN,
otherwise a list of the builtins is printed. The -s option restricts
the output for each builtin command matching PATTERN to a short usage
Usage: host name
host is a simple utility for performing DNS lookups. It is normally
used to convert names to IP addresses and vice versa.
Usage: hostname [-adfis]
This command can return the hostname, the DNS domain or the FQDN
(fully qualified domain name).
Usage: id -agGnru [user]
Print information for user (or the current user).
Usage: ifconfig [-a] [interface]
ifconfig displays the status of the currently active interfaces. If a
single interface argument is given, it displays the status of the
given interface only; if a single -a argument is given, it displays
the status of all interfaces, even those that are down.
Usage: jarinfo [-im] jarfile// [file]
Display the manifest of a JAR file. The -m option selects the main
section, the -i option selecs the individual sections.
Usage: java [options] (class|-jar jarfile) [arg...]
The java utility launches a Java application. It does this by
creating a temporary entity and invoking it. If there is arguments,
the method 'open' is used. If there is not, the default method is
Usage: kill [-n signum | -signum] [pid...]
Send the processes named by PID (or JOB) the signal SIGNUM. If SIGNUM
is not present, then SIGTERM (15) is assumed. Kill is a shell builtin
for two reasons: it allows job IDs to be used instead of process IDs,
and, if you have reached the limit on processes that you can create,
you don't have to start a process to kill another one.
Usage: locate [-u | -U path | -r regexp | name]
Locate provides a way to index and quickly search for files on your
Usage: lsentities [-1aelnrsuES] [arg...]
List information about the ENTITY(ies). If the -u option is supplied,
the URL is displayed instead of the alias. With -n, print the name.
Usage: ls [-1adlrtACFR] [file...]
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if no -t.
Usage: lsnamespaces [-alop] [pid]
Lists the packages used by the current shell. The -a option shows all
running tasks. The -l option displays more information. The -o option
selects only the own packages. The -p option selects only the parent
Usage: md5sum [-bt] [file...]
Print MD5 (128-bit) checksums. With no file, or when file is -, read
Usage: mkdir [-p] [-m mode] directory...
Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist. The -m option
is ignored. If the -p option is set, no error if existing, make parent
directories as needed.
Usage: more [-dlfpcsu] [-num] name1 name2 ... // [+linenum | +/pattern]
This is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.
This version is especially primitve.
Usage: mv [-fv]
Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.
Usage: ps [-] [uaxh] [pid ...]
Give a snapshot of the current tasks. The -u option selects the
user-oriented view. The -h option removes the header.
Usage: pwd [-PL]
Print the current working directory. With the -P option, pwd prints
the physical directory, without any symbolic links; the -L option
makes pwd follow symbolic links.
Usage: read [-ers] [-p prompt] [-n nchars] [-d delim] [name ...]
One line is read from the standard input, or from file descriptor FD
if the -u option is supplied, and the first word is assigned to the
first NAME, the second word to the second NAME, and so on, with
leftover words assigned to the last NAME. Only the characters found
in $IFS are recognized as word delimiters. If no NAMEs are supplied,
the line read is stored in the REPLY variable. If the -r option is
given, this signifies `raw' input, and backslash escaping is disabled.
The -d option causes read to continue until the first character of
DELIM is read, rather than newline. If the -p option is supplied, the
string PROMPT is output without a trailing newline before attempting
to read. If -a is supplied, the words read are assigned to sequential
indices of ARRAY, starting at zero. If -e is supplied and the shell
is interactive, readline is used to obtain the line. If -n is
supplied with a non-zero NCHARS argument, read returns after NCHARS
characters have been read. The -s option causes input coming from a
terminal to not be echoed.
The -t option causes read to time out and return failure if a complete
line of input is not read within TIMEOUT seconds. If the TMOUT
variable is set, its value is the default timeout. The return code is
zero, unless end-of-file is encountered, read times out, or an invalid
file descriptor is supplied as the argument to -u.
Usage: renice [[+-]n] [pid...]
Alter priority of running tasks. The priority is given as a numerical
value between 1 (minimum) and 10 (maximum).
Usage: rmdir [-p] directory ...
Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty. If the -p option is
supplied, remove DIRECTORY, then try to remove each directory
component of that path name.
Usage: rm [-fiv] file [file...]
Remove FILE(s). the -f option ignores nonexistent files and never
prompts. The -i option prompts before any removal. The -v option
explains what is being done. The -r option is not yet implemented.
Usage: set [-abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option] [arg...]
-a Mark variables which are modified or created for export.
-b Notify of job termination immediately.
-e Exit immediately if a command exits with a non-zero status.
-f Disable file name generation (globbing).
-h Remember the location of commands as they are looked up.
-k All assignment arguments are placed in the environment for a
command, not just those that precede the command name.
-m Job control is enabled.
-n Read commands but do not execute them.
Set the variable corresponding to option-name:
allexport same as -a
braceexpand same as -B
emacs use an emacs-style line editing interface
errexit same as -e
hashall same as -h
histexpand same as -H
history enable command history
ignoreeof the shell will not exit upon reading EOF
allow comments to appear in interactive commands
keyword same as -k
monitor same as -m
noclobber same as -C
noexec same as -n
noglob same as -f
nolog currently accepted but ignored
notify same as -b
nounset same as -u
onecmd same as -t
physical same as -P
posix change the behavior of bash where the default
operation differs from the 1003.2 standard to
match the standard
privileged same as -p
verbose same as -v
vi use a vi-style line editing interface
xtrace same as -x
-p Turned on whenever the real and effective user ids do not match.
Disables processing of the $ENV file and importing of shell
functions. Turning this option off causes the effective uid and
gid to be set to the real uid and gid.
-t Exit after reading and executing one command.
-u Treat unset variables as an error when substituting.
-v Print shell input lines as they are read.
-x Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.
-B the shell will perform brace expansion
-C If set, disallow existing regular files to be overwritten
by redirection of output.
-H Enable ! style history substitution. This flag is on
-P If set, do not follow symbolic links when executing commands
such as cd which change the current directory.
Using + rather than - causes these flags to be turned off. The flags
can also be used upon invocation of the shell. The current set of flags
may be found in $-. The remaining n ARGs are positional parameters and
are assigned, in order, to $1, $2, .. $n. If no ARGs are given, all
shell variables are printed.
Usage: sha1sum [-bt] [file...]
Print SHA1 (160-bit) checksums. With no file, or when file is -, read
Usage: shift [n]
The positional parameters from $N+1 ... are renamed to $1 ... If N is
not given, it is assumed to be 1.
Usage: sh [-ilrsD] [-c command] [file]
Jsh would like to be an sh-compatible command language interpreter
that executes commands read from the standard input or from a file.
If the -c option is present, then commands are read from COMMAND. If
the -i option is present, the shell is interactive.
Usage: shutdown time [warning message]
shutdown brings the system down in a secure way.
Usage: sleep number[suffix]
Pause for NUMBER seconds. SUFFIX may be `s' for seconds (the
default), `m' for minutes, `h' for hours or `d' for days. Unlike most
implementations that require NUMBER be an integer, here NUMBER may be
an arbitrary floating point number.
Usage: sort [-bdfginrs] [file...]
Sort lines of text files.
Usage: source filename
Read and execute commands from FILENAME and return. The pathnames in
$PATH are used to find the directory containing FILENAME.
Usage: stat [-Lt] file...
Not yet documented.
See your favorite un*x manual.
Usage: tar [-fjtvxz] [file...]
Not yet documented.
See your favorite un*x manual.
Usage: tee [-a] [file...]
Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output.
Usage: telnet hostname [port]
The telnet command is used to communicate with another host using the
Usage: test [expr]
Exits with a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the
evaluation of EXPR. Expressions may be unary or binary. Unary
expressions are often used to examine the status of a file. There are
string operators as well, and numeric comparison operators.
Usage: time [-p] pipeline
Execute PIPELINE and print a summary of the real time, user CPU time,
and system CPU time spent executing PIPELINE when it terminates. The
return status is the return status of PIPELINE. The `-p' option
prints the timing summary in a slightly different format.
Print the accumulated user and system times for processes run from the
shell. [not implemented]
The top command provides a dynamic view of the running system. It
displays summary information as well as a list of tasks currently
running. Type q to quit.
Usage: touch [-acfm] [-r reference] [-t date] file...
Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current
time. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short
options too. The -a and -f options are ignored. When the -c option is
supplied, no file is created. The -r option makes touch use the times
of its arg. The -t option makes touch use [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss]
instead of current time.
Usage: tr [-cdst] string1 [string2] //cdt]
Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input,
writing to standard output.
-c First complement STRING1
-d Delete characters in STRING1, do not translate
-s Replace each input sequence of a repeated character that is
listed in STRING1 with a single occurrence of that character
-t Truncate STRING2
Return a successful result.
Usage: unalias [-a] [name...]
Remove NAMEs from the list of defined aliases. If the -a option is
given, then remove all alias definitions.
Usage: uname -aimnoprsv
Print certain system information.
Usage: unset [-f] [-v] [name...]
For each NAME, remove the corresponding variable or function. Given
the `-v', unset will only act on variables. Given the `-f' flag,
unset will only act on functions. With neither flag, unset first
tries to unset a variable, and if that fails, then tries to unset a
function. Some variables cannot be unset; also see readonly.
Usage: usleep [number]
usleep sleeps some number of microseconds. The default is 1.
Usage: wc [-cmlLw] [file...]
Print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files. The -L option
prints the length of the longest line.
Usage: wget [-dsv] [-O file] url
Wget is a non-interactive network retriever. It downloads an URL and
stores the content into a file.
Usage: which [-a] programname [...]
Which takes one or more arguments. For each of its arguments it prints
to stdout the full path of the executables that would have been
executed when this argument had been entered at the shell prompt. It
does this by searching for an executable or script in the directories
listed in the environment variable PATH using the same algorithm as
Print the user name associated with the current effective user.
Usage: zcat [-f] [file...]
zcat uncompresses either a list of files on the command line or its
standard input and writes the uncompressed data on standard output
(same as gunzip -c).