/ jsh/man

    Usage: alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]
    Set or  print aliases. With no  arguments or with the  -p option, this
    command prints  the list  of aliases in  the form alias  NAME=VALUE on
    standard output.  Otherwise,  an alias is defined for  each NAME whose
    VALUE is given.  A trailing space  in VALUE causes the next word to be
    checked  for alias  substitution when  the alias  is  expanded.  Alias
    returns  true unless  a NAME  is  given for  which no  alias has  been

    Usage: arch 
    Print machine architecture. arch is equivalent to uname -m.

    Usage: basename name [suffix]
    Print  NAME  with  any   leading  directory  components  removed.   If
    specified, also remove a trailing SUFFIX.

    Usage: cal [-13smjyV] [[month] year]
    Display  a  simple calendar.   If  arguments  are  not specified,  the
    current month is displayed.

    Usage: cat [-benstuvAET] [file...]
    Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output.

    Usage: cd [-L|-P] [dir]
    Change  the current  directory  to  DIR.  The  variable  $HOME is  the
    default  DIR.   The -P  option  says  to  use the  physical  directory
    structure instead  of following symbolic  links; the -L  option forces
    symbolic links to be followed.

    Usage: cp [-fv] 
    Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

    Usage: cut (-b|-c|-f) range,... [-ns] [-d char] [-D string] [file...]
    Print selected parts of lines from each file to standard output. 
      -b LIST   output only these bytes
      -c LIST   output only these characters
      -f LIST   output only these fields, also print any line that
                contains no delimiter character, unless the -s option
                is specified
      -n        ignored
      -d CHAR   use CHAR instead of TAB for field delimiter
      -s        do not print lines not containing delimiters
      -D STRING use STRING as the output delimiter, the default is to
                use the input delimiter
    Use one, and only one of -b, -c or -f.  Each LIST is made up of one
    range, or many ranges separated by commas.  Each range is one of:
      N     N'th byte, character or field, counted from 1
      N-    from N'th byte, character or field, to end of line
      N-M   from N'th to M'th (included) byte, character or field
      -M    from first to M'th (included) byte, character or field
    With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

    Usage: date [-R] [-r reference] [-d date] [+format]
    Display the current time in the given FORMAT.

    Usage: diff [-u] file1 file2
    Compare files line by line.

    Usage: dirname name
    Print NAME with  its trailing /component removed; if  NAME contains no
    /'s, output `.' (meaning the current directory).

    Usage: dmesg [-n level] [file...]
    This program helps users to  print out their log messages.  Instead of
    copying the messages by hand, the user need only:
      dmesg > log.messages
    and mail the log.messages file to whoever can debug their problem. The
    -n option specifies the level  of filtering and takes an integer (0-6)
    or a symbolic name (debug,trace,warning,error,failure).

    Usage: dnsdomainname 
    dnsdomainname will print the domain  part of the FQDN (Fully Qualified
    Domain Name).

    Usage: echo [-neE] [arg...]
    Output the ARGs.  If -n is specified, the trailing newline is
    suppressed.  If the -e option is given, interpretation of the
    following backslash-escaped characters is turned on:
        \a    alert (bell)
        \b    backspace
        \c    suppress trailing newline
        \E    escape character
        \f    form feed
        \n    new line
        \r    carriage return
        \t    horizontal tab
        \v    vertical tab
        \\    backslash
        \num  the character whose ASCII code is NUM (octal).
    You can explicitly  turn off the interpretation  of the above
    characters with the -E option.

    Usage: env [-i] [-u name] [-] [name=value]... [command [arg]...]
    Run a program in a modified environment. The -i option sets an empty
    environment. The -u option lets you unset a variable.

    Usage: eval [arg...]
    Read ARGs as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s).

    Usage: exec [-cl] [-a name] [-m method] (file|url)
    Not yet documented

    Usage: exit [n]
    Exit the shell with  a status of N.  If N is  omitted, the exit status
    is that of the last command executed.

    Usage: expr [arg...]
    Not yet documented

    Usage: false 
    Return an unsuccessful result.

    Usage: fgrep [-i] string [file...]
    Search for STRING in each FILE or standard input.

    Usage: file [-biLnNprs] [-F string] [file...]
    Tests each file in an attempt to classify it.

    Usage: find [directory...]
    Not yet documented.
    See your favorite un*x manual.

    Usage: gc [-bhKMp]
    This command activates the garbage collector in an attempt to free
    memory. It outputs current memory status.

    Usage: grep [-i] pattern [file...]
    Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input. The PATTERN must
    follow the Java syntax.

    Usage: gunzip [-cfv] [file...]
    Uncompress files.  Each file with a  .gz extension is  replaced by one
    without  the  extension  and  containing the  uncompress  data,  while
    keeping the same modification time.

    Usage: gzip [-cdfv19] [file...]
    Compress  files. Each  file is  replaced  by one  with the  additional
    extension .gz, while keeping the same modification time.

    Usage: head [-q] [-c N] [-n N] [file...]
    Not yet documented.
    See your favorite un*x manual.

    Usage: help [-s] [pattern]
    Display  helpful information  about builtin  commands.  If  PATTERN is
    specified,  gives  detailed help  on  all  commands matching  PATTERN,
    otherwise a list of the  builtins is printed.  The -s option restricts
    the output for each builtin  command matching PATTERN to a short usage

    Usage: host name
    host is a  simple utility for performing DNS  lookups.  It is normally
    used to convert names to IP addresses and vice versa.

    Usage: hostname [-adfis]
    This  command can  return the  hostname, the  DNS domain  or  the FQDN
    (fully qualified domain name).

    Usage: id -agGnru [user]
    Print information for user (or the current user).

    Usage: ifconfig [-a] [interface]
    ifconfig displays the status of  the currently active interfaces. If a
    single  interface argument  is given,  it displays  the status  of the
    given interface  only; if a single  -a argument is  given, it displays
    the status of all interfaces, even those that are down.

    Usage: jarinfo [-im] jarfile// [file]
    Display the  manifest of a  JAR file. The  -m option selects  the main
    section, the -i option selecs the individual sections.

    Usage: java [options] (class|-jar jarfile) [arg...]
    The  java  utility launches  a  Java  application.   It does  this  by
    creating a  temporary entity and  invoking it. If there  is arguments,
    the method  'open' is  used. If  there is not,  the default  method is

    Usage: kill [-n signum | -signum] [pid...]
    Send the processes named by PID (or JOB) the signal SIGNUM.  If SIGNUM
    is not present, then SIGTERM (15)  is assumed. Kill is a shell builtin
    for two reasons: it allows job  IDs to be used instead of process IDs,
    and, if you  have reached the limit on processes  that you can create,
    you don't have to start a process to kill another one.

    Usage: locate [-u | -U path | -r regexp | name]
    Locate provides  a way to index  and quickly search for  files on your

    Usage: lsentities [-1aelnrsuES] [arg...]
    List information  about the ENTITY(ies).   If the -u option  is supplied,
    the URL is displayed instead of the alias. With -n, print the name.

    Usage: ls [-1adlrtACFR] [file...]
    List information  about the FILEs (the current  directory by default).
    Sort entries alphabetically if no -t.

    Usage: lsnamespaces [-alop] [pid]
    Lists the packages used by the current shell.  The -a option shows all
    running tasks.  The -l option displays more information. The -o option
    selects only the  own packages. The -p option  selects only the parent

    Usage: md5sum [-bt] [file...]
    Print MD5 (128-bit) checksums.  With no  file, or when file is -, read
    standard input.

    Usage: mkdir [-p] [-m mode] directory...
    Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist. The -m option
    is ignored. If the -p option is set, no error if existing, make parent
    directories as needed.

    Usage: more [-dlfpcsu] [-num] name1 name2 ... // [+linenum | +/pattern] 
    This is  a filter  for paging  through text one  screenful at  a time.
    This version is especially primitve.

    Usage: mv [-fv] 
    Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

    Usage: ps [-] [uaxh] [pid ...]
    Give  a snapshot  of the  current tasks.   The -u  option  selects the
    user-oriented view. The -h option removes the header.

    Usage: pwd [-PL]
    Print the current  working directory.  With the -P  option, pwd prints
    the  physical directory,  without any  symbolic links;  the  -L option
    makes pwd follow symbolic links.

    Usage: read [-ers] [-p prompt] [-n nchars] [-d delim] [name ...]
    One line is  read from the standard input, or  from file descriptor FD
    if the  -u option is supplied, and  the first word is  assigned to the
    first  NAME, the  second word  to  the second  NAME, and  so on,  with
    leftover words assigned  to the last NAME.  Only  the characters found
    in $IFS are recognized as  word delimiters.  If no NAMEs are supplied,
    the line  read is stored in the  REPLY variable.  If the  -r option is
    given, this signifies `raw' input, and backslash escaping is disabled.
    The -d  option causes  read to continue  until the first  character of
    DELIM is read, rather than newline.  If the -p option is supplied, the
    string PROMPT  is output without a trailing  newline before attempting
    to read.  If -a is supplied, the words read are assigned to sequential
    indices of ARRAY,  starting at zero.  If -e is  supplied and the shell
    is  interactive,  readline is  used  to obtain  the  line.   If -n  is
    supplied with  a non-zero NCHARS  argument, read returns  after NCHARS
    characters have been  read.  The -s option causes  input coming from a
    terminal to not be echoed.
    The -t option causes read to time out and return failure if a complete
    line  of input  is  not read  within  TIMEOUT seconds.   If the  TMOUT
    variable is set, its value is the default timeout.  The return code is
    zero, unless end-of-file is encountered, read times out, or an invalid
    file descriptor is supplied as the argument to -u.

    Usage: renice [[+-]n] [pid...]
    Alter priority of running tasks. The priority is given as a numerical
    value between 1 (minimum) and 10 (maximum).

    Usage: rmdir [-p] directory ...
    Remove  the DIRECTORY(ies), if  they are  empty. If  the -p  option is
    supplied,  remove  DIRECTORY,  then   try  to  remove  each  directory
    component of that path name.

    Usage: rm [-fiv] file [file...]
    Remove  FILE(s). the  -f option  ignores nonexistent  files  and never
    prompts.  The -i  option prompts  before  any removal.  The -v  option
    explains what is being done. The -r option is not yet implemented. 

    Usage: set [-abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option] [arg...]
        -a  Mark variables which are modified or created for export.
        -b  Notify of job termination immediately.
        -e  Exit immediately if a command exits with a non-zero status.
        -f  Disable file name generation (globbing).
        -h  Remember the location of commands as they are looked up.
        -k  All assignment arguments are placed in the environment for a
            command, not just those that precede the command name.
        -m  Job control is enabled.
        -n  Read commands but do not execute them.
        -o option-name
            Set the variable corresponding to option-name:
                allexport    same as -a
                braceexpand  same as -B
                emacs        use an emacs-style line editing interface
                errexit      same as -e
                hashall      same as -h
                histexpand   same as -H
                history      enable command history
                ignoreeof    the shell will not exit upon reading EOF
                             allow comments to appear in interactive commands
                keyword      same as -k
                monitor      same as -m
                noclobber    same as -C
                noexec       same as -n
                noglob       same as -f
                nolog        currently accepted but ignored
                notify       same as -b
                nounset      same as -u
                onecmd       same as -t
                physical     same as -P
                posix        change the behavior of bash where the default
                             operation differs from the 1003.2 standard to
                             match the standard
                privileged   same as -p
                verbose      same as -v
                vi           use a vi-style line editing interface
                xtrace       same as -x
        -p  Turned on whenever the real and effective user ids do not match.
            Disables processing of the $ENV file and importing of shell
            functions.  Turning this option off causes the effective uid and
            gid to be set to the real uid and gid.
        -t  Exit after reading and executing one command.
        -u  Treat unset variables as an error when substituting.
        -v  Print shell input lines as they are read.
        -x  Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.
        -B  the shell will perform brace expansion
        -C  If set, disallow existing regular files to be overwritten
            by redirection of output.
        -H  Enable ! style history substitution.  This flag is on
            by default.
        -P  If set, do not follow symbolic links when executing commands
                such as cd which change the current directory.
    Using + rather  than - causes  these  flags to be turned off.  The flags
    can also be used upon invocation of the shell.  The current set of flags
    may be found in $-.  The remaining n ARGs  are positional parameters and
    are  assigned,  in order,  to $1, $2, .. $n.  If no ARGs  are given, all
    shell variables are printed.

    Usage: sha1sum [-bt] [file...]
    Print SHA1 (160-bit) checksums.  With no  file, or when file is -, read
    standard input.

    Usage: shift [n]
    The positional parameters from $N+1 ... are renamed to $1 ...  If N is
    not given, it is assumed to be 1.

    Usage: sh [-ilrsD] [-c command] [file]
    Jsh  would like to  be an  sh-compatible command  language interpreter
    that executes  commands read from the  standard input or  from a file.
    If the -c option is present,  then commands are read from COMMAND.  If
    the -i option is present, the shell is interactive.

    Usage: shutdown time [warning message]
    shutdown brings the system down in a secure way.

    Usage: sleep number[suffix]
    Pause  for  NUMBER  seconds.   SUFFIX  may be  `s'  for  seconds  (the
    default), `m' for minutes, `h' for hours or `d' for days.  Unlike most
    implementations that require NUMBER be  an integer, here NUMBER may be
    an arbitrary floating point number.

    Usage: sort [-bdfginrs] [file...]
    Sort lines of text files.

    Usage: source filename
    Read and execute commands from  FILENAME and return.  The pathnames in
    $PATH are used to find the directory containing FILENAME.

    Usage: stat [-Lt] file...
    Not yet documented.
    See your favorite un*x manual.

    Usage: tar [-fjtvxz] [file...]
    Not yet documented.
    See your favorite un*x manual.

    Usage: tee [-a] [file...]
    Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output.

    Usage: telnet hostname [port]
    The telnet command is used  to communicate with another host using the
    TELNET protocol.

    Usage: test [expr]
    Exits  with  a status  of  0  (true) or  1  (false)  depending on  the
    evaluation  of  EXPR.  Expressions  may  be  unary  or binary.   Unary
    expressions are often used to examine the status of a file.  There are
    string operators as well, and numeric comparison operators.

    Usage: time [-p] pipeline
    Execute PIPELINE and print a summary  of the real time, user CPU time,
    and system CPU time spent  executing PIPELINE when it terminates.  The
    return  status is  the return  status  of PIPELINE.   The `-p'  option
    prints the timing summary in a slightly different format.

    Usage: times 
    Print the accumulated user and system times for processes run from the
    shell. [not implemented]

    Usage: top 
    The top  command provides  a dynamic view  of the running  system.  It
    displays  summary information  as well  as a  list of  tasks currently
    running. Type q to quit.

    Usage: touch [-acfm] [-r reference] [-t date] file...
    Update the access  and modification times of each  FILE to the current
    time.   Mandatory arguments to  long options  are mandatory  for short
    options too.  The -a and -f options are ignored. When the -c option is
    supplied, no file is created. The  -r option makes touch use the times
    of  its arg.   The  -t option  makes  touch use  [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss]
    instead of current time.

    Usage: tr [-cdst] string1 [string2] //cdt] 
    Translate,  squeeze,  and/or delete  characters  from standard  input,
    writing to standard output.
        -c  First complement STRING1
        -d  Delete characters in STRING1, do not translate
        -s  Replace each input sequence of a repeated character that is
            listed in STRING1 with a single occurrence of that character
        -t  Truncate STRING2

    Usage: true 
    Return a successful result.

    Usage: unalias [-a] [name...]
    Remove NAMEs  from the list of  defined aliases.  If the  -a option is
    given, then remove all alias definitions.

    Usage: uname -aimnoprsv
    Print certain system information.

    Usage: unset [-f] [-v] [name...]
    For each  NAME, remove the corresponding variable  or function.  Given
    the  `-v', unset will  only act  on variables.   Given the  `-f' flag,
    unset  will only  act on  functions.  With  neither flag,  unset first
    tries to  unset a variable, and if  that fails, then tries  to unset a
    function.  Some variables cannot be unset; also see readonly.

    Usage: usleep [number]
    usleep sleeps some number of microseconds. The default is 1.

    Usage: wc [-cmlLw] [file...]
    Print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files. The -L option
    prints the length of the longest line.

    Usage: wget [-dsv] [-O file] url
    Wget is a  non-interactive network retriever. It downloads  an URL and
    stores the content into a file.

    Usage: which [-a] programname [...]
    Which takes one or more arguments. For each of its arguments it prints
    to  stdout the  full  path of  the  executables that  would have  been
    executed when this  argument had been entered at  the shell prompt. It
    does this by searching for  an executable or script in the directories
    listed in  the environment variable  PATH using the same  algorithm as

    Usage: whoami 
    Print the user name associated with the current effective user.

    Usage: zcat [-f] [file...]
    zcat uncompresses  either a list of  files on the command  line or its
    standard  input and writes  the uncompressed  data on  standard output
    (same as gunzip -c).

© 2002-2005 Guillaume Desnoix et autres